Sunday, 17 December 2017

The LSAT—IndiaTM is a test of reasoning and reading skills, not a test to see whether you happened to have memorized the right facts or equations. The theory behind the LSAT—IndiaTM is democratic and inclusive. It holds that students acquire critical thinking skills over their educational lifetimes, and that these skills are the most important for the study of law. Good critical thinking skills may be acquired in virtually any educational programme anywhere so long as it is rigorous and of high quality. Thus, no training in any specific field or set of fields is required to do well on the LSAT—IndiaTM The test rewards candidates with generalised abilities adaptable to a variety of circumstances.

A Single Common Test For Multiple Law Colleges

Candidates have the benefit of taking a single test — the LSAT—IndiaTM — to become eligible for the admissions process of multiple law colleges in India which recognise the LSAT—IndiaTM scores. Candidates can take the LSAT—IndiaTM on Sunday, 20th May, 2018 at any of the test centres spread across multiple cities in India.

Simple Registration Process

After completing the LSAT—IndiaTM registration, candidates can apply to the associated colleges (colleges which will accept LSAT—IndiaTM scores). Candidates can choose to apply to any or all of the associated colleges, however, LSAT—IndiaTM scores will be given to all associated colleges. A list of associated law colleges is available on this site. Candidates can download the application forms from the respective college websites and apply to the colleges mentioning their LSAT—IndiaTM registration number.

Important Dates
Candidates can register for LSAT—IndiaTM through ONLINE mode only. No demand draft will be accepted for LSAT—IndiaTM 2018

Registration Window Start: 4 October, 2017
Registration Window Ends: 4 May, 2018
Admit Card Release: 5 May - 19 May, 2018
LSAT-IndiaTM 2018 , Test Date: 20 May, 2018
Announcement of Results To be announced

Test Pattern & Scoring

The LSAT—IndiaTM is a standardized test of reading and verbal reasoning skills designed by the USA-based Law School Admission Council (LSAC) for use by law schools in India. The LSAT—IndiaTM is patterned after the world-renowned LSAT®. It is developed by testing professionals with advanced degrees in psychometrics, English, linguistics, and logic. It is not created by ad hoc committees of faculty. The LSAT—IndiaTM pattern rigorously follows prescribed specifications that are essentially the same every year. Each test question has been subjected to multiple levels of review and to a system of pretesting, so candidates can be assured that every question has one and only one correct answer.

The LSAT—IndiaTM is meant to help anyone with good critical thinking skills. So, there are no questions designed to assess prior legal knowledge, no questions requiring mathematical knowledge and no questions on current affairs or grammar. The LSAT—IndiaTM breaks critical thinking skills down into three main types: logical reasoning, analytical reasoning, and reading comprehension. Since the first of these types is most predictive of success in law school, there are two sections of logical reasoning questions in the LSAT—IndiaTM. There is also one section each of analytical reasoning and reading comprehension questions, which contribute to the predictive validity of the test.

There is no negative marking or penalty for guessing. Only correct answers contribute to a candidate's score. Therefore, candidates should leave no question unanswered and guess on those questions they cannot carefully consider.

Testing Locations
The LSAT—IndiaTM 2018 test will be conducted in the following cities:

North: Chandigarh, Delhi (NCR), Jaipur, Lucknow, Dehradun
South: Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Kochi
East: Bhubaneswar, Kolkata, Raipur, Ranchi, Guwahati, Patna
West: Ahmedabad, Bhopal, Mumbai, Nagpur, Indore

Visit the website for further information
Algebra

  • Definitions of A. P. and G.P.
  • General term
  • Summation of first n-terms of series ∑n, ∑n²,∑n 3
  • Arithmetic/Geometric series, A.M., G.M. and their relation
  • Infinite G.P. series and its sum

Logarithms

  • Definition
  • General properties
  • Change of base

Matrices

  • Concepts of m x n (m ≤ 3, n ≤ 3) real matrices, operations of addition, scalar multiplication and
  • multiplication of matrices.
  • Transpose of a matrix.
  • Determinant of a square matrix. Properties of
  • determinants (statement only).
  • Minor, cofactor and adjoint of a matrix. Nonsingular matrix. Inverse of a matrix.
  • Finding area of a triangle.
  • Solutions of system of linear equations. (Not more than 3 variables).

Trignometry

  • Trigonometric functions, addition and subtraction formulae, formulae involving multiple and submultiple angles, general solution of trigonometric equations.
  • Properties of triangles, inverse trigonometric functions and their properties

Coordinate geometry

  • Distance formula, section formula, area of a triangle, condition of collinearity of three points in a plane.
  • Polar coordinates, transformation from Cartesian to polar coordinates and vice versa.
  • Parallel transformation of axes, concept of locus, elementary locus problems. Slope of a line. Equation of lines in different forms, angle between two lines.
  • Condition of perpendicularity and parallelism of two lines.
  • Distance of a point from a line.
  • Distance between two parallel lines.
  • Lines through the point of intersection of two lines.
  • Equation of a circle with a given center and radius.
  • Condition that a general equation of second degree in x, y may represent a circle.
  • Equation of a circle in terms of endpoints of a diameter.
  • Equation of tangent, normal and chord.
  • Parametric equation of a circle.
  • Intersection of a line with a circle.
  • Equation of common chord of two intersecting circles

Dimensional Co-ordinate geometry:

  • Direction cosines and direction ratios, distance between two points and section formula, equation of a straight line, equation of a plane, distance of a point from a plane
  • Theory of Calculus
  • Functions, composition of two functions and inverse of a function, limit, continuity, derivative, chain rule, derivative of implicit functions and functions defined parametrically.
  • Integration as a reverse process of differentiation, indefinite integral of standard functions.
  • Integration by parts.
  • Integration by substitution and partial fraction.
  • Definite integral as a limit of a sum with equal subdivisions. Fundamental theorem of integral calculus and its applications. Properties of definite integrals.
  • Formation of ordinary differential equations, solution of homogeneous differential equations, separation of variables method, linear first order differential equations

Application of Calculus

  • Tangents and normals, conditions of tangency.
  • Determination of monotonicity, maxima and minima. Differential coefficient as a measure of rate. Motion in a straight line with constant acceleration.
  • Geometric interpretation of definite integral as area, calculation of area bounded by elementary curves and Straight lines.
  • Area of the region included between two elementary curves
Permutation and combination
  • Permutation of n different things taken r at a time (r ≤ n). Permutation of n things not all different
  • Permutation with repetitions (circular permutation excluded). Combinations of n different things taken r at a time (r ≤ n). Combination of n things not all different. Basic properties. Problems involving both permutations and combinations

Statistics and Probability

  • Measure of dispersion, mean, variance and standard deviation, frequency distribution.
  • Addition and multiplication rules of probability, conditional probability and Bayes’ Theorem, independence of events, repeated independent trails and Binomial distribution

National Aptitude Test in Architecture (NATA) is being conducted by Council of Architecture (COA) since 2006. The purpose of conducting NATA is to provide a single scheme of examination for holding aptitude test and to facilitate prospective students all over the country to apply for admissions in architecture seats in institutions spread across the country and to avoid appearing in multiple aptitude tests. However, the actual admissions shall be carried out only by the concerned competent authorities of the respective states/institutions based on NATA. The NATA also ensures that the eligibility criteria for admission to five year Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.) degree course, as prescribed by CoA and duly approved by the Central Government, are strictly adhered to and followed all over the country in Architectural Institutions.

Date of Examination: The examination is held in the month of April
Subject and Marks of Examination
Part-A (FIRST 90 minutes) TOTAL 120 Marks
Mathematics (MCQ) 20X2 = 40 Marks (OMR BASED)

General Aptitude (MCQ ) 40X2 = 80 Marks (OMR BASED)

Part-B (LAST 90 minutes) TOTAL 80 Marks
Drawings (TWO SETS) in A4 Size paper 2X 40 = 80 Marks

Eligibility
(a) 10+2 or equivalent passed/appearing with Mathematics as one of the subjects of examination;
(b) 10+3 Diploma (any stream) passed/appearing recognized by Central/State Govts with  athematics
as one of the subjects of examination;
(c) International Baccalaureate Diploma passed/appearing, after 10 years of Schooling with Mathematics as compulsory subject of examination.

Admission to First year of B.Arch. course
Only candidates who have the following credentials shall be eligible for admission to B.Arch. Course.
i. Qualified a recognized aptitude test in Architecture (NATA or equivalent) in 2017 OR qualified in NATA-2016 AND
ii. Have gone through any of the following curriculum with marks as prescribed below:
(a) Secured 50% marks in 10+2 or equivalent examination with Mathematics as one of the subjects;
OR
(b) 10+3 Diploma (any stream) recognized by Central/State Govts with 50% aggregate marks with Mathematics; OR
(c) International Baccalaureate Diploma passed/appearing, after 10 years of Schooling with 50% marks in aggregate and with Mathematics as compulsory subject of examination

No direct lateral admission is allowed at any other year/stage of B.Arch. course based on any qualification. 

Application Procedure

Application has to be filled up ONLINE at the NATA portal of NIC http://www.nata.nic.in

Allocation of Examination Centre
The allocation of examination centre spread across all state capitals and other selected cities subject to availability of at least 250 students in general. Cities will be based on the choices given by the candidate during online form fill-up. However, discretion of the Council in allocation of examination centre shall be final. No request for change of allocated center will be entertained under any circumstances. 

Validity of NATA score
NATA score shall be valid only for admission in the academic session concerned

Timeline
Online form available from January
Last date for application will be February 2nd week
Examination in April
Results will be published in June


Pattern of Questions

All the booklets will be served at the beginning in one folder. MCQ answer sheet (OMR) for Part-A will be withdrawn after 90 minutes. It is to be noted carefully that the candidates must fill in as well as bubble in ALL the relevant information including the “Question Booklet No” at the indicated places on OMR Answer Sheet, Drawing Sheets and Attendance Sheet during examination.
Questions and all instructions will be available only in English medium.
Subject
Distribution of Marks
Total Marks
Mathematics (20 Qs)
20 x 2
40
General Aptitude (40 Qs)
40 x 2
80
Drawing (2 Qs)
2 x 40
80

TOTAL
200


The Medical Council of India (MCI) recommends the following syllabus for National Eligibility-cum-Entrance Test for admission to MBBS courses across the country (NEET-UG) after review of various State syllabi as well as those prepared by CBSE, NCERT and COBSE. This is to establish a uniformity across the country keeping in view the relevance of different areas in medical education.

PHYSICS


CONTENTS CLASS XI SYLLABUS

UNIT I: Physical World and Measurement

Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.

Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.

Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications. 


UNIT II: Kinematics  

Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs, for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).

Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.

Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components.

Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion. Uniform circular motion. 




More books for NEET Physics

UNIT III: Laws of Motion  

Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.

Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.

Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

UNIT IV: Work, Energy and Power


Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power. 

Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); nonconservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in  one and two dimensions. 


UNIT V : Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.

Moment of a force,-torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples.

Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

UNIT VI: Gravitation


Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. 

Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites. 


UNIT VII : Properties of Bulk Matter   

Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship. Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poisson’s ratio; elastic energy.

Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.

Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.

Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry; change of state – latent heat.

Heat transfer- conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation. Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation, Wein’s displacement law, and Green House effect.

Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law. 


UNIT VIII: Thermodynamics   

Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.

Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators. 


UNIT IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory   

Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.

Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path.

UNIT X: Oscillations and Waves   

Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion(SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM –Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.

Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect. 


CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS  


UNIT I: Electrostatics   

Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.

Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside)

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges: equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric diploes in an electrostatic field.

Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator.


UNIT II: Current Electricity   

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (liner and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity.

Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.

Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.

Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

UNIT III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism   

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.

Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.

Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.

Para-, dia-and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples.

Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets. 


UNIT IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents   

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law,Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance.

Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current.

AC generator and transformer. 


UNIT V: Electromagnetic Waves   

Need for displacement current.

Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.


UNIT VI: Optics   

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.

Scattering of light- blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.

Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia and hypermetropia) using lenses.

Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts.

Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle.

Interference, Young’s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.

Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.

Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids. 


UNIT VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation   

Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation- particle nature of light.

Matter waves- wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained). 


UNIT VIII: Atoms and Nuclei   

Alpha- particle scattering experiments; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.

Radioactivity- alpha, beta and gamma particles/ rays and their properties decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.


UNIT IX: Electronic Devices   

Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators and semiconductors; semiconductor diode- I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch .


CHEMISTRY 


CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYLLABUS   


UNIT I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry   

General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry.

Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.

Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry. 




More books for NEET Chemistry 

 UNIT II: Structure of Atom   

Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals. 


UNIT III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties   

Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements- atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence. 


UNIT IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure   

Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond. 


UNIT V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids   

Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.

Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations). 


UNIT VI : Thermodynamics   

First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution.

Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity.

Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction. 




UNIT VII: Equilibrium   

Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium- Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea)., buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).


UNIT VIII: Redox Reactions  

Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers.


UNIT IX: Hydrogen  

Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydridesionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure; 


UNIT X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)   

Group I and group 2 elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.

Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds:

Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium.

Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca. 


UNIT XI: Some p-Block Elements  

General Introduction to p-Block Elements.

Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.

General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides.

Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses. 


UNIT XII: Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques   

General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.

Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.

Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions. 


UNIT XIII: Hydrocarbons  

Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.

Alkanes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.

Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.

Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution- Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity. 


UNIT XIV: Environmental Chemistry  

Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming-pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.


CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS  

UNIT I: Solid State  

Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators. 


UNIT II: Solutions  

Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties- relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor. 


UNIT III: Electrochemistry  

Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.    


UNIT IV: Chemical Kinetics  

Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation. 


UNIT V: Surface Chemistry  

Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.


UNIT VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements  

Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron. 


UNIT VII: p- Block Elements  

Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous- allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).

Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).

Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses. 


UNIT VIII: d and f Block Elements  

General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character,ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.

Lanthanoids- electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.

Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids. 


UNIT IX: Coordination Compounds  

Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s theory VBT,CFT; importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, biological systems).


UNIT X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes   

Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C –X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation.

Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).

Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.


UNIT XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers   

Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.

Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.

Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties uses. 


UNIT XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids   

Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.

Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.


UNIT XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen   

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines.

Cyanides and Isocyanides- will be mentioned at relevant places.

Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. 


UNIT XIV: Biomolecules  

Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.

Proteins- Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.

Hormones- Elementary idea (excluding structure).

Vitamins- Classification and function.

Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA 


UNIT XV: Polymers  

Classification- Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers. 


UNIT XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life  

Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.

Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.

Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.


BIOLOGY



CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYLLABUS   


UNIT I: Diversity in Living World   

What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.

Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.

Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiospermsclassification up to class, characteristic features and examples).

Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).


UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants  

Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).

Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)


UNIT III: Cell Structure and Function  

Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.

Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.

B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance. 


UNIT IV: Plant Physiology  

Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).

Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.

Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations- Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.

Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.


UNIT IV: Human Physiology  

Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.

Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.

Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system- Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.

Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.

Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular;Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.

Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humanscentral nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.

Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease). (Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.)


CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS  

UNIT I: Reproduction

Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).


UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution  

Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism- Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation- Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.

Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift;Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution. 





More books on NEET Biology 

UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare   

Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.

Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.

Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.


UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications  

Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).

Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.


UNIT V: Ecology and environment  

Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation,pollination, oxygen release.

Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.

Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.
NATIONAL DEFENCE ACADEMY AND NAVAL ACADEMY EXAMINATION

Paper I       MATHEMATICS

1. Algebra 
Concept of a set, operations on sets, Venn diagrams. De Morgan laws. Cartesian product, relation, equivalence relation.

Representation of real numbers on a line. Complex numbers - basic properties, modulus, argument, cube roots of unity. Binary system of numbers. Conversion of a number in decimal system to binary system and vice-versa. Arithmetic, Geometric and Harmonic progressions. Quadratic equations with real coefficients. Solution of linear inequations of two variables by graphs. Permutation and Combination. Binomial theorem and its application. Logarithms and their applications.

2.Matrices and Determinants

Types of matrices, operations on matrices Determinant of a matrix, basic properties of determinant. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix, Applications - Solution of a system of linear equations in two or three unknowns by Cramers rule and by Matrix Method.

3.Trigonometry

Angles and their measures in degrees and in radians. Trigonometrical ratios. Trigonometric identities Sum and difference formulae. Multiple and Sub-multiple angles. Inverse trigonometric functions. Applications - Height and distance, properties of triangles.

4.Analytical Geometry of two and three dimensions

Rectangular Cartesian Coordinate system. Distance formula. Equation of a line in various forms. Angle between two lines. Distance of a point from a line. Equation of a circle in standard and in general form. Standard forms of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Eccentricity and axis of a conic.

Point in a three dimensional space, distance between two points. Direction Cosines and direction ratios. Equation of a plane and a line in various forms. Angle between two lines and angle between two planes. Equation of a sphere.

5.Differential Calculus

Concept of a real valued function - domain, range and graph of a function. Composite functions, one to one, onto and inverse functions. Notion of limit, Standard limits - examples. Continuity of functions - examples, algebraic operations on continuous functions. Derivative of a function at a point, geometrical and physical interpreatation of a derivative - applications. Derivatives of sum, product and quotient of functions, derivative of a function with respect of another function, derivative of a composite function. Second order derivatives. Increasing and decreasing functions. Application of derivatives in problems of maxima and minima.

6.Integral Calculus and Differential equations

Integration as inverse of differentiation, integration by substitution and by parts, standard integrals involving algebraic expressions, trigonometric, exponential and hyperbolic functions. Evaluation of definite integrals - determination of areas of plane regions bounded by curves - applications.
Definition of order and degree of a differential equation, formation of a differential equation by examples. General and particular solution of a differential equation, solution of first order and first degree differential equations of various types - examples. Application in problems of growth and decay.

7. Vector Algebra

Vectors in two and three dimensions, magnitude and direction of a vector. Unit and null vectors, addition of vectors, scalar multiplication of vector, scalar product or dot product of two-vectors. Vector product and cross product of two vectors. Applications-work done by a force and moment of a force, and in geometrical problems.

8.Statistics and Probability

Statistics Classification of data, Frequency distribution, cumulative frequency distribution - examples Graphical representation - Histogram, Pie Chart, Frequency Polygon - examples. Measures of Central tendency - mean, median and mode. Variance and standard deviation - determination and comparison. Correlation and regression.

Probability  Random experiment, outcomes and associated sample space, events, mutually exclusive and exhaustive events, impossible and certain events. Union and Intersection of events. Complementary, elementary and composite events. Definition of probability - classical and statistical - examples. Elementary theorems on probability - simple problems. Conditional probability, Bayes theorem - simple problems. Random variable as function on a sample space. Binomial distribution, examples of random experiments giving rise to Binominal distribution.

Paper II   GENERAL ABILITY TEST

Part A - ENGLISH  

The question paper in English will be designed to test the candidates understanding of English and workman like use of words. The syllabus covers various aspects like Grammar and usage, vocabulary, comprehension and cohesion in extended text to test the candidates proficiency in English.

Part B - GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

The question paper on General Knowledge will broadly cover the subjects  Physics, Chemistry, General Science, Social Studies, Geography and Current Events.

The syllabus given below is designed to indicate the scope of these subjects included in this paper. The topics mentioned are not to be regarded as exhaustive and questions on topics of similar nature not specifically mentioned in the syllabus may also be asked. Candidates answers are expected to show their knowledge and intelligent understanding of the subject.

Section A (Physics)

Physical Properties and States of Matter, Mass, Weight, Volume, Density and Specific Gravity, Principle of Archimedes, Pressure Barometer.

Motion of objects, Velocity and Acceleration, Newtons Laws of Motion, Force and Momentum, Parallelogram of Forces, Stability and Equilibrium of bodies, Gravitation, elementary ideas of work, Power and Energy.

Effects of Heat, Measurement of temperature and heat, change of State and Latent Heat, Modes of transference of Heat.

Sound waves and their properties, Simple musical instruments.

Rectilinear propagation of Light, Reflection and refraction. Spherical mirrors and Lenses. Human Eye.

Natural and Artificial Magnets, Properties of a Magnet, Earth as a Magnet.

Static and Current Electricity, conductors and Non-conductors, Ohms Law, Simple Electrical Circuits, Heating, Lighting and Magnetic effects of Current, Measurement of Electrical Power, Primary and Secondary Cells, Use of X-Rays.

General Principles in the working of the following

Simple Pendulum, Simple Pulleys, Siphon, Levers, Balloon, Pumps, Hydrometer, Pressure Cooker, Thermos Flask, Gramophone, Telegraphs, Telephone, Periscope, Telescope, Microscope, Mariners Compass; Lightening Conductors, Safety Fuses.

Section B (Chemistry)

Physical and Chemical changes. Elements, Mixtures and Compounds, Symbols, Formulae and simple Chemical Equations, Law of Chemical Combination (excluding problems). Properties of Air and Water.

Preparation and Properties of Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Carbondioxide, Oxidation and Reduction.

Acids, bases and salts.

Carbon - different forms.

Fertilizers - Natural and Artificial

Material used in the preparation of substances like soap, Glass, Ink, Paper, Cement, Paints, Safety Matches, and Gun-Powder.

Elementary ideas about the Structure of Atom, Atomic, Equivalent and Molecular Weights, Valency.

Section C (General Science)

Difference between the living and non- living.

Basis of Life - Cells, Protoplasms and Tissues.

Growth and Reproduction in Plants and Animals.

Elementary knowledge of human Body and its important organs.

Common Epidemics, their causes and prevention.

Food - Source of Energy for man. Constituents of food, Balanced Diet.

The Solar System - Meteors and Comets, Eclipses.

Achievements of Eminent Scientists.

Section D (History, Freedom Movement etc.)

A broad survey of Indian History, with emphasis on Culture and Civilisation.

Freedom Movement in India.

Elementary study of Indian Constitution and Administration.

Elementary knowledge of Five Year Plans of India.

Panchayati Raj, Co-operatives and Community Development.

Bhoodan, Sarvodaya, National Integration and Welfare State, Basic Teachings of Mahatma Gandhi.

Forces shaping the modern world; Renaissance, Exploration and Discovery; War of American Independence. French Revolution, Industrial Revolution and Russian Revolution. Impact of Science and Technology on Society. Concept of one World, United Nations, Panchsheel, Democracy. Socialism and Communism. Role of India in the present world.

Section E (Geography)

The Earth, its shape and size. Lattitudes and Longitudes, Concept of time. International Date Line. Movements of Earth and their effects.

Origin of Earth. Rocks and their classification; Weathering - Mechanical and Chemical, Earthquakes and volcanoes.

Ocean Currents and Tides

Atmosphere and its composition; Temperature and Atmospheric Pressure, Planetary Winds, cyclones and Anti-cyclones; Humidity; Condensation and Precipitation; Types of Climate. Major Natural regions of the World.

Regional Geography of India - Climate, Natural vegetation. Mineral and Power resources; location and distribution of agricultural and industrial activities.

ImportantSea ports and main sea, land and air routes of India. Main items of Imports and Exports of India.

Section F (Current Events)

Knowledge of Important events that have happened in India in the recent years.

Current important world events.

Prominent personalities - both Indian and International including those connected with cultural activities and sports.

Note

Out of maximum marks assigned to part B of this paper, questions on Sections A, B, C, D, E and F will carry approximately 25%, 15%, 10%, 20%, 20% and 10% weightages respectively.


Intelligence and personality test

The SSB procedure consists of two stage Selection process - stage I and stage II.  Only those candidates who clear the stage I are permitted to appear for stage II.  The details are : 
(a) Stage  I  comprises  of  Officer  Intelligence  Rating  (OIR)  tests  are  Picture Perception * Description Test (PP&DT).  The candidates will be shortlisted based on combination of performance in OIR Test and PP&DT. 
(b) Stage II Comprises of Interview, Group Testing Officer Tasks, Psychology Tests and the Conference.  These tests are conducted over 4 days.  The details of these tests are given on the website www.joinindianarmy.nic.in
The  personality  of  a  candidate  is  assessed  by  three  different  assessors viz. The  Interviewing  Officer  (IO),  Group  Testing Officer  (GTO)  and  the Psychologist. There  are  no  separate  weightage  for each  test.    The  mks  are 22 allotted  by  assessors  only  after  taking  into  consideration  the  performance  of the candidate holistically in all the test.  In addition, marks for Conference are also  allotted  based  on  the  initial performance  of  the  Candidate  in  the  three techniques and decision of the Board.  All these have equal weightage. 
The various tests of IO, GTO and Psychare designed to bring out the presence/absence   of   Officer   Like   Qualities   and   their   trainability   in   a candidate.  
Accordingly candidates are Recommended or Not Recommended at the SSB

Study Materials

Books from Amazon

Quiz for You

Powered by Blogger.

Higher Education and Careers

Popular Posts

Competition for Students